TPEC Algorithm and its Application in Niao Chao Hill —China’s first international undersea feature naming

In recent years, Sub-Committee on Undersea Feature Names (SCUFN) has been conducting deliberations on naming undersea features that are entirely or mainly (more than 50%) outside the external limits of the territorial sea, adhering to the principles of not involving sovereignty dispute between countries. In order to participate in undersea feature naming and embody the international responsibility, obligation and influence of the State, Chinese State Oceanic Administration submitted seven undersea name proposals to SCUFN in 2011 for the first time.

Zn isotope composition in hydrothermal systems on the mid-ocean ridge and its implication for geochemical cycling of Zinc

Hydrothermal systems play an important role on the oceanic biogeochemical cycles of Zn and its isotopes. However, for the Zn isotopic systems in hydrothermal systems we know too little of the distribution of Zn isotopes in variable hydrothermal products and its impact on modern oceanic mass balance. We have measured Zn isotopes in hydrothermal products such as oxidation products of chimney sulfides and hydrothermal sediments from the active hydrothermal field on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge in order to better understand the oceanic biogeochemical cycles of Zn isotopes.

Ren Mengyi Metallogenic information extraction and quantitative prediction process of seafloor polymetallic sulfide resources in the Southwest Indian Ocean

Seafloor polymetallic sulfide resources exhibit significant development potential. In 2011, the China Ocean Mineral Resources Research and Development Association (COMRA) and International Seabed Authority (ISA) signed a contract for the exploration of 10,000 km2 of a hydrothermal sulfide area located on the Southwest Indian Ridge (SWIR). According to the Regulations, China will have to relinquish, respectively, 50 % and 75 % of the contract area within 8 and 10 years. However, an exploration of the seafloor hydrothermal sulfide deposits in China remains in the initial stage.

Studying Mid-Ocean Ridge Processes with Observatory Technologies: What Have We Seen After Five Years?

Real-time, continuously recording observatory technologies are now installed at three mid-ocean ridge locations, serving disciplines from geophysics to biology.  All three observatories provide power and communications to seafloor networks of sensors, with data being transmitted to land via long-distance cables or a satellite link. Two observatories have been operating since 2010 (EMSO Açores and NEPTUNE Endeavour), and the third (OOI Axial Volcano) went online in 2015.

The resource potential of slow- and ultraslow-spreading ridges

Increasing commercial interest in mining of seafloor massive sulfides and the political will to secure metal supply for global industries has led to an ongoing debate about their possible resource potential. The need for such assessments is now more urgent, as a number of countries and international consortia have begun to invest in intensive exploration campaigns. A growing database of global SMS occurrences is providing clues to the likely distribution, size and grade of the deposits. More than 330 sites of seafloor mineralization are now known on the ocean floor.

Geochemistry and biogeochemistry of deep-sea hydrothermal system

Deep-sea hydrothermal systems and associated biota have long attracted interest of many researchers (e.g., Humphris et al., 1995; Van Dover, 2000; Wilcock et al., 2004). In the past few decades, particular attention has been paid to chemolithoautotrophic microorganisms that sustain the hydrothermal vent-endemic animal communities as the primary producer.

Complex ridge-transform evolution and mantle exhumation at the St. Paul transform-fracture zone system, Equatorial Alantic.

Marcia Maia1, Susanna Sichel2,Anne Briais3, Daniele Brunelli4,5, Nicolas Ferreira1, Marco Ligi5, Thomas Campos6

Sub-seafloor massive sulfide deposits: a resource for the near future?

Europe, and the world in general, need new sources of base and strategic metals, given a growing global population, with growing effluence, which will reach ten billion human beings before (slowly) decreasing. One of the new, global scale sources of mineral resources is the deep seafloor, and there are 25 exploration concessions already granted by ISA (International Seabed Authority) in the Area, mostly for polymetallic nodules and sms deposits, and still others in waters under national jurisdiction.

Hydrothermal energy transfer and the ocean carbon cycling

Hydrothermal energy transfer and the ocean carbon cycling

N. Le Bris, UPMC - CNRS, France

East Pacific Rise 15.4°N: A geochemical approach at very small spatial and temporal scale in a hotspot-ridge context.

East Pacific Rise 15.4°N: A geochemical approach at very small spatial and temporal scale in a hotspot-ridge context.

A review of electromagnetic approaches to the seafloor spreading ridge system

Electrical conductivity (or its reciprocal resistivity) is sensitive to temperature, component, and phase of materials, and the degree and form of interconnection of material in matrix for two or more materials’ system.

First data on composition of the NW Pacific Oceanic Lithosphere exposed along the Stalemate Fracture Zone.

The Stalemate Fracture Zone (FZ) is a 500 km long SE-NW trending transverse ridge between the northernmost late-Cretaceous Emperor Seamounts and the Aleutian Trench. Sampling at the Stalemate FZ and the fossil Kula-Pacific Rift valley was carried out during the R/V SONNE cruise SO201 Leg 1b in 2009 in frame of Russian-German project KALMAR. We present in this work results on mineralogical composition of mantle peridotite dredged at the station DR37 from the northernmost  part of the Stalemate FZ on border with Aleutian Trench.

Melting of peridotite beneath Mid Ocean Ridges: Simplicity and complexity

Chemical and isotopic compositions of mid ocean ridge basalts (MORBs) are relatively homogeneous when compared with the basalts from other tectonic settings, e.g., ocean islands and arcs. Nevertheless, their variations indicate that the source mantle beneath MORs should be heterogeneous and the melt generation and coalescence processes are complex. I here present an overview of such the melting processes of peridotite beneath MORs.

Review of Japanese Taiga project 1, Indian Ocean

InterRidge-Japan community conducted an interdisciplinary research project TAIGA, Trans-crustal Advection and In-situ biogeochemical processes of Global sub-seafloor Aquifer, from 2009 to 2013. The flows and chemical compositions of subseafloor fluid are regulated by tectonics, and are modified by the host rocks. During 5 years project, we selected three integrated study sites of different tectonic settings and carried out multi-disciplinary studies.

Review of Japanese Taiga project 2, Okinawa Trough

The Okinawa Trough is a back-arc basin behind the Ryukyu trench-arc system and located along the eastern margin of the Eurasian continent. Based on geophysical and geological studies, the Okinawa Trough is considered a back-arc basin in the rifting stage. Such a tectonic setting is characterized by development of normal faulting in brittle continental crust and frequent intrusion of a magma, which can be expected to provide favorable environment for development of a hydrothermal system.